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Glossary

Bitmap (image) A graphic image consisting of a specific arrangement of screen dots or pixels. All digital photo images are bitmap images saved in a variety of formats based on quality of final use.

Bleed An element that extends to the edge of the page. To print a bleed, the publication is  printed on oversized paper which is trimmed.

Camera-ready Copy which is ready for photography. Mechanicals, photographs and art that are fully prepared for reproduction according to the technical requirements of the printing process being used. Final publication material that is ready to be made into a negative for a printing plate. May be a computer file or actual print and images on a board.

Clip art Ready-made artwork sold or distributed for clipping and pasting into publications. Available in hard-copy books and in electronic form as files on disk.

CMYK Stands for the colors Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black. In print design, colors are defined as a percentage of each of these four colors. For example, the CMYK abbreviation for the color black would be 0-0-0-100. In contrast, display devices (i.e. computer monitors) typically define colors using RGB.

Color Separation  Technique of using a camera, scanner or computer to divide continuous-tone color images into four halftone negatives.  The film, proof or printed product resulting from color separating.

Copy Refers to text (typewritten pages, word-processing files, typeset galleys or pages) although sometimes refers to all source materials (text and graphics) used in a publication.

Crop marks Horizontal and vertical lines that indicate the edge of the printed piece.

Digital color proof A color proof produced from digital data without the need for film separations. It is not an accurate representation of press colors.

Dot Gain In printing, a defect in which dots print larger than they should causing darker   tones or stronger colors.

DPI(dots per inch) The unit of measurement used to describe the resolution of printed output.

Duotone A halftone image printed with two colors, one dark and the other light.

Font A font is a complete set of characters in a particular size and style of type. This includes the letter set, the number set, and all of the special characters. For example, Times New Roman Bold Italic is one font and Times New Roman Bold is another font.

Four-color process  The process of combining four basic colors (CMYK) to create a printed color picture or colors composed from the basic four colors.

Gang Getting the most out of a printing press by using the maximum sheet size to print multiple images or jobs on the same sheet. A way to save money.

Gradient A gradient is a gradual transition of colors.

Grayscale A grayscale graphic image appears to be black, white, and shades of gray, but it only uses a single color ink.

Gripper Edge  The leading edge of paper as it passes through a printing press.

Gripper Margin Unprintable blank edge of paper on which grippers bear, usually 1/2” or  less.

Gutter In double-sided documents, the combination of the inside margins of facing pages; the gutter should be wide enough to accommodate binding.

Leading The space between lines of type, traditionally measured base line-to-baseline, in points. Text type is generally set with one or two points  of leading; for example, 10-point type with 2 points of leading.  This is described as 10/12, read ten on twelve.

Point A measurement used in typography for type size, leading, and other space specifications in a page layout. There are 12 points in a pica and approximately 70 points to an inch.

PMS (Pantone  Matching System) A standard color-matching system used by printers and graphic designers for inks. A PMS color is a standard color defined by percentage mixtures of different primary inks.

Process Colors In printing, the subtractive primaries; yellow, magenta and cyan, plus black  in four-color process printing.

Register Fitting of two or more printing images in exact alignment with each other.

Resolution  The crispness of detail or fineness of grain in an image. Screen resolution  is measured in dots by lines (for example, 640 x 350); printer resolution is measured in dpi (for example, 300 dpi).

RGB Stands for the colors Red-Green-Blue. In web design and design for computer monitors, colors are defined in terms of a combination of these three colors. In contrast, print designers typically define colors using CMYK.

Signature In printing and binding, the name given to a printed sheet after it has been  folded.

Spread In a double-sided document, the combination of two facing pages which are designed as a unit. Also, the adjacent inside panels of a brochure when opened.

Trapping Refers to how much overprinting colors overlap to eliminate white lines between colors in printing.

Trim Size  The final size of one printed image after the last trim is made.

Vector Graphic  A graphic image drawn in shapes and lines called paths. Images created in Illustrator and Freehand (graphic design software) are vector graphics.

Typeface  The set of characters created by a type designer, including uppercase and lowercase alphabetical characters, numbers, punctuation, and special characters. A single typeface contains many fonts at different sizes and styles.